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The first is the never-ending entrepreneurial development of highbandwidth applications. Among these are high-speed LAN interconnect for the metro market, graphic and video-intensive multimedia applications, interactive video, television, movies on demand, and a host of others. As applications emerge, the ability to provision bandwidth on demand for these applications becomes a major market driver, and corporations have made their desires for immediate, high-quality transport known rather loudly. Another driver behind the remarkable success of SONET and SDH is expense. As the amount of deployed fiber has increased, the cost of bandwidth has plummeted. Bandwidth, then, becomes a commodity. The economic constants of supply and demand are well known here: the more available a commodity becomes, the less expensive it tends to be. Bandwidth certainly follows this model. Of course, technology, falling prices, and applications development haven t been the only contributors to SONET s rapid evolution. As with many innovations, the strength of the marketplace has played a key role. In 1984, shortly after the divestiture of AT&T, MCI s Bill McGowan went before the Interexchange Carrier Compatibility Forum (ICCF) to ask for their assistance on a growing problem. The government s Equal Access rulings ensured that all interexchange carriers would have equal access to each local exchange carrier s customers, thereby guaranteeing fair market access to both AT&T and all other long-distance carriers, MCI among them. The problem was that, although the rulings guaranteed points-of-presence in the local exchange central offices, they left the onus of interconnection, that is, equipment compatibility, up to the interexchange carrier. As you might imagine, this became rather expensive because quite a variety of deployed equipment by that time would not interoperate. Every POP that MCI established meant that they had to purchase the right termination equipment in order to interconnect with the local exchange carrier. To resolve this expensive and complex (and clearly dead-end) issue, McGowan called for the creation of a mid-span meet standard that all network equipment manufacturers could design interfaces for, thus allowing for vendor-independent interconnection of fiber transmission systems. The idea was a good one whose time had come. Bellcore, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) quickly formed study groups to research the concept. After a certain amount of political puffery and positioning, the North American standards bodies and the ITU were able to define a transmission hierarchy that became the international standards known as SONET and SDH. These standards were initially created as two distinct phases. The first dealt with physical and hardware parameters such as signal construction,
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multiplexing, optical concerns such as laser power and pulse shape, and payload mappings. The second phase was designed to refine the physical parameters and clearly define the protocols and messages that would be used to transport network management and error control messages. This second phase turned out to be more ambitious than they originally thought, and in due course, it was divided into two pieces. Phase two refined the specifications for the electrical/optical interface that would play a major role in SONET/SDH and identified the necessary Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning messages that would be required in this new network. Phase three, released in early 1992, defined more specific OAM&P message sets, and outlined the use of SONET s data communications channels. In 1988, the initial standards for the Synchronous Optical Network were released, and by 1992, the standards were finalized. This incredibly swift development cycle is a testimony to the need that existed for such a set of capabilities. In current systems, multiplexing plays a key role in enabling service providers to make the best possible use of scarce and expensive transmission facilities. The multiplexing process is complex, however, and uses a mixture of data and control information to keep track of individual signal components. The back-to-back multiplexers that are capable of unscrambling the composite signal are necessary, but expensive. Network engineers recognized the need for a better way. Other factors influenced the eventual birth of SONET as well. These included the development of broadband services, such as medical imaging, increasing customer demand for bandwidth to accommodate those applications, rapid advances in fiber technology, VLSI, and optoelectronics, and an attendant drop in cost, a very real need for standard transmission rates above DS-3, and a growing need for centralized network management in complex systems. All of these paved the way to the development of SONET, but the effort became real in 1984, when MCI asked the ICCF to push for the development of mid-span meet capability, which would eliminate the problems encountered in multivendor environments. The ICCF and other standards bodies agreed, and the SONET standards were rolled out in three evolutionary phases. Let s look at the standards themselves. Mid-span meet capability overcame the fact that most network equipment relied on proprietary transmission schemes. This meant that interoperability could only be achieved through the very costly expedient of matching equipment on a like-for-like basis. Clearly, the standard made good economic sense for the carriers, but
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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