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In some cases, the intruder uploads and compiles the source, and successfully installs the LKM; however, she forgets to delete the actual LKM source files! When this happens, you may not only discover the presence of the LKM, you may also find additional configuration information Here is an excerpt from a discovered Adore make file:
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CFLAGS+=DELITE_CMD=102993 CFLAGS+=DELITE_UID=30 CFLAGS+=DCURRNT_ADORE=42 CFLAGS+=DADORE_KEY=\ batman\
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The make file not only contains the Elite command, Elite UID, and Adore version number (42), but it also has the Adore key The DADORE_KEY value contains batman, the intruder s password! If the intruder didn t rename or hide the files, the following command would find the startadore script, one of several associated files, if it existed on the root file system
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[root@curtis ]# find / -name startadore print /tmp/ /startadore
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The Adore LKM uses a helper application called ava Even if it is renamed, that application contains several text strings, such as these:
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R remove PID forever U uninstall adore I make PID invisible
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Using the grep command, you can search for these strings:
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[root@curtis ]# grep ra R remove PID forever / /tmp/ /ava: R remove PID forever
We ve been lucky and found elements of the Adore LKM, but is it actually installed and operational The actual module or object file (adoreo), just like other files, has identifiable information that can be extracted by the strings command Here are some examples of excerpts of a strings command on adoreo:
HIDDEN_SERVICES adorec is_invisible is_secret hide_process strip_invisible
A fragment of a strings command executed on /proc/kmem reveals several indications of the Adore LKM s presence in the system kernel/memory of this suspected victim system:
adorecgcc2_compiled__module_kernel_version__module_using_checksumsred irHIDDEN_SERVICESinit_hookmy_atoimy_find_taskis_invisibleis_secretige t_R075f7eb5iput_R2484a64dhide_processremove_processunhide_processstrip_ invisibleunstrip_invisiblen_getdentso_getdentskmalloc_R93d4cfe6__generi c_copy_from_user_R1161
LKM Detection Utilities
Developers have created several utilities specifically designed to detect malicious LKMs Two such utilities are chkrootkit and KSTAT
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The chkrootkit Utility
Nelson Murilo s chkrootkit detects several rootkits, worms, and LKMs Here is an example of executing chkrootkit on a system (the output is truncated):
ROOTDIR is `/' Checking `amd' not found Checking `basename' not infected Checking `biff' not found Checking `killall' not infected Checking `ldsopreload' not infected Checking `login' not infected Checking `ls' not infected Checking `lsof' not infected Checking `mail' not infected Checking `mingetty' not infected Checking `netstat' not infected Checking `named' not infected Checking `passwd' not infected Checking `pidof' not infected Checking `pop2' not found Checking `pop3' not found Checking `ps' not infected Checking `tcpd' not infected Checking `tcpdump' not infected Checking `aliens' no suspect files Searching for sniffer's logs, it may take a while nothing found Searching for HiDrootkit's default dir nothing found Searching for t0rn's default files and dirs nothing found Searching for t0rn's v8 defaults nothing found Searching for Lion Worm default files and dirs nothing found Searching for RSHA's default files and dir nothing found Searching for RH-Sharpe's default files nothing found Searching for Ambient's rootkit (ark) default files and dirs nothing found Searching for suspicious files and dirs, it may take a while /usr/lib/perl5/500503/i386-linux/packlist /usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5005/i386-linux/auto/MD5/packlist /usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5005/i386-linux/auto/mod_perl/packlist /usr/lib/linuxconf/install/gnome/directory /usr/lib/linuxconf/install/gnome/order /lib/modules/2214-50/rhkmvtag Searching for LPD Worm files and dirs nothing found Searching for Ramen Worm files and dirs nothing found Searching for Maniac files and dirs nothing found Searching for Romanian rootkit nothing found Searching for anomalies in shell history files nothing found Checking `asp' not infected Checking `bindshell' not infected Checking `lkm' SIGINVISIBLE Adore found Warning: Possible LKM Trojan installed Checking `rexedcs' not found
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Checking `sniffer' eth0 is not promisc Checking `z2' nothing deleted
As you can see, chkrootkit properly detected that Adore was installed
GO GET IT ON THE WEB chkrootkit: ftp://ftppangeiacombr/pub/seg/pac/
The KSTAT Utility
The KSAT utility provides several functions useful for detection of trojan LKMs:
Usage: /kstat [-i iff] [-P] [-p pid] [-M] [-m addr] [-s] -i iff may be specified as 'all' or as name (eg eth0) displays info about the queried interface -P displays all processes -p pid is the process id of the queried task -M displays the kernel's LKMs' linked list -m addr is the hex address of the queried module displays info about the module to be found at addr -s displays info about the system calls' table
The option to display the system call table (-s) is particularly useful You can think of this as being similar to the interrupt vector table on DOS systems If a system call table address entry has been modified, this is a good indication of a trojan LKM In the example below, several system calls were remapped (the output is truncated):
Kstat s SysCall sys_exit sys_fork sys_read sys_write sys_open sys_close sys_waitpid sys_ni_syscall sys_stat sys_lseek sys_getpid sys_mount sys_oldumount sys_getgroups sys_setgroups sys_select Address 0xc01175c9 0xd0875438 0xc0125199 0xd08755a0 0xd087626c 0xd087565c 0xc01178c3 0xc0114308 0xd08758d8 0xc0124ffb 0xc01121e6 0xc0129272 0xc0128f34 0xc011520f 0xc011525c 0xc010e122
WARNING! Should be at 0xc0108fdc WARNING! Should be at 0xc0125254 WARNING! Should be at 0xc0124d7f WARNING! Should be at 0xc0124ec0
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