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fr AMP IF LO
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FIGURE 93 The effects of reciprocal mixing, increasing the noise oor for the wanted signal (fr) through the mixing of the LO s phase-noise with the high-level interferer signal (fINTERFERER)
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ways in which we can reduce this reciprocal mixing: lower the amplitude of the interfering signal, and/or decrease the local oscillator s phase noise The reciprocal mixing action, which takes place within the receiver s mixer, will normally be a problem when the interfering signal is close to the desired signal: fIF = fI + fN or fIF = fI fN
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where fI = interfering signal, which is close to the desired signal, Hz fN = frequency of the LO noise sidebands, which are very close to either side of the LO frequency, Hz fIF = frequency of the receiver s IF, Hz
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Receiver Half-IF Spurs
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Half-IF spurs (as shown in Fig 91) can be a problem when a receiver possesses a low IF frequency relative to its RF, and are created by the nonlinearities within the mixer stage permitting spurs into the receiver s IF by Half-IF (Hz) = (05 IF + RF) 2 (2 LO) This formula indicates that any RF frequency that is at half the IF plus the RF frequency, and that substantially gets past the first RF filters before the first mixer stage, will be able to cause IF inband interference This half-IF interference is due to the second
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harmonic of this half of the IF frequency plus the RF frequency mixing with the LO s second harmonic, with the resulting difference frequency falling dead in the receiver s IF band To mitigate this, any RF signals that are at half the IF plus the desired RF should be properly attenuated before they exit the first front-end receive filter These half-IF spurs in a receiver are fourth-order spurious or noise responses that are generated by the nonlinearities of the mixer and the frequency mixing of an interferer The RF frequencies that cause half-IF spurs are located in frequency midway between the receiver s LO and our wanted RF signal, producing a second-order spur that heterodynes with the second harmonic of the LO, creating an inband spur in the IF, and can be an issue both with high-side and low-side LO injection schemes When using low-side injection, any RF interferer at the receiver s front-end that is below the receiver s wanted frequency by fIF/2 [or fHALF IF = fr fIF/2 or fHALF IF = (fr + fLO)] For high-side injection, any RF interferer at the receiver s front-end that is above the wanted received frequency by fIF/2 (or fHALF IF = fr + fIF/2) can cause a spurious response in the IF passband For instance, if we had a low-side injection receiver that was tuned to 2 GHz (fr), and the receiver has an IF of 100 MHz (fIF), then we could expect that any signal at a frequency of fr fIF/2, 2 GHz 100 MHz/2 = 195 GHz, will cause a signal spur to be created directly on the receiver s 100-MHz IF frequency We can check this result by fIF = (2 fHALF IF) (2 fLO) Any mixer with a high IIP2 specification (greater than 45 dBm) will probably not generate a significant half-IF spur nor half-IF noise, since the spur is, as mentioned, caused by second-order distortions within the mixer
Receiver Phase Noise
Phase noise (Fig 94) is a noise similar to a modulated spectrum created by a virtual noise source that is phase modulating the desired signal All real-world receiver local oscillators are not perfect single continuous wave (CW) frequency sources, but possess noise sidebands, called phase noise Any receiver s modulation scheme that uses phase variations to communicate, especially dense modulations such as QAM-16 and above, are severely affected by the presence of this phase noise, since low phase noise is vital to maintain a receiver s SNR and BER (See Receiver Reciprocal Mixing ) Phase noise is measured as the ratio between the fundamental frequency and a noise sideband (in dBc), with the noise sideband located within a 1-Hz bandwidth at a
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